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C.S. (Carsten) Pietersma

PhD student



I started my PhD-training at Erasmus MC after having worked as a resident-not-in-training at Ikazia Hospital and Erasmus MC in Rotterdam. My PhD research concerns the application of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound and virtual reality (VR) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Part of this is a randomized controlled trial on the additional value of first-trimester 3D VR for the detection of congenital anomalies in pregnancy. Other topics of interest are cost-effectiveness analysis and health-related quality of life, as well as fetal development and the Carnegie developmental stages.

Field(s) of expertise

  • Virtual reality.
  • Ultrasound.
  • First trimester of pregnancy.
  • Fetal medicine.
  • 2D and 3D ultrasound.

Education and career

Medicine - Utrecht University Resident-not-in-training at Ikazia Hospital, Rotterdam, and Erasmus MC, Rotterdam.


Virtual Reality & Feasibility and Efficacy of first Trimester Ultrasound Study (VR FETUS): study protocol for a randomized clinical trial.
C.S. Pietersma, A.G.M.G.J. Mulders, L.M. Moolenaar, M.G.M. Hunink, A.H.J. Koning, S.P. Willemsen, A.T.J.I. Go, E.A.P. Steegers, M. Rousian. (2019).

Robotic-assisted laparoscopic repair of a vesicovaginal fistula: a time-consuming novelty or an effective tool? 
C.S. Pietersma, H.W.R. Schreuder, A. Kooistra, S.E. Schraffordt Koops. (2014). BMJ Case Rep. 2014 Jun 10;2014:bcr2014204119.

Cost-effectiveness analysis of the first trimester ultrasound: a decision analysis.
C.S. Pietersma, A.G.M.G.J. Mulders, L.M. Moolenaar, M.G.M. Hunink, E.A.P. Steegers, M. Rousian. (2019). Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Feb;53(2):239-244.

Periconceptional maternal smoking and delayed embryonic morphological development according to the Carnegie stages.
D Ortved, T L-A Hawkins, J-A Johnson, J Hyett, A Metcalfe. (2019). Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Feb;53(2):239-244.

Delayed morphological development in first-trimester pregnancies preceding a miscarriage.
C. Pietersma  A. Mulders  A. Altena  S. Willemsen  E.A. Steegers  R.P. Steegers‐Theunissen  M. Rousian. (2020). Electronic Poster at ISUOG 2020.

Women’s perspectives with new three-dimensional virtual reality ultrasound: exploration of an in-house developed questionnaire (VR FETUS study).
C.S. Pietersma, A.G.M.G.J. Mulders, K. Zandbergen, F. Gordijn, E.A.P. (2020). Electronic Poster at ISUOG 2020.

First trimester detection of renal agenesis using 3D ultrasound and Virtual Reality. 
C.S. Pietersma, M. Rousian, A.T.J.I. Go, A.G.M.G.J. Mulders. (2019). Poster presentation at ISUOG 2019, Berlin.

Virtual reality and feasibility and efficacy of first trimester ultrasound: a randomized controlled trial (VR FETUS study). 
C.S. Pietersma, A.G.M.G.J. Mulders, A.T.J.I. Go, E.A.P. Steegers, M. Rousian. (2018). Oral presentation at ISUOG 2018, Singapore.

Trial of labor in growth estimated discordant twins.
C.S. Pietersma, R. Rijpma, J.D. Derks, K.E.A. Hack. (2016). Oral presentation at ECPM 17 juni 2016.

Teaching activities

  • Supervised the master’s thesis writing of many master students.
  • Teaching on first-trimester ultrasound.

My Groups