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L. (Lisa) Bauer

Assistant Professor

  • Department
  • Viroscience
  • Focus area
  • CNS disease, influenza A viruses, enteroviruses, neuropathology, stem-cell derived CNS cells, neurons, glia cells
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I am studying how viruses replicate and cause disease in the central nervous system (CNS), with emphasis on differences among CNS cell types such as neurons, astrocytes and microglia in order to develop antiviral strategies to prevent or cure viral encephalopathies.

Multiple viruses are important causes of viral encephalopathies: enteroviruses (Echo-, Coxsacie, numbered Enteroviruses), influenza A viruses (subtypes H5N1, H1N1 and H3N2) and the recently emerged MPOX virus. These viruses differ in the anatomical areas of the brain they target and the neurological complications they cause, likely reflecting in differences in cell type tropism and neuroinflammatory incitement.

To understand differences in the neuropathology of these viruses, I am currently investigating how these viruses interact with different CNS cell types at the molecular level, using state-of-the-art techniques. There is a large knowledge gap on how viruses interfere with the homeostasis in the CNS to cause neurological complications. I want to unravel how virus infections alter the cellular, immunological and metabolic responses of CNS cells, how they are transmitted from neuron to neuron and other cells of the CNS and which host factors contribute to it. Identifying these host factors plays a pivotal role for future antiviral drug discovery.

Field(s) of expertise

Enteroviruses, molecular virology, stem-cell differentiation into neurons, astrocytes and microglia,.

Education and career

Lisa Bauer is an Assistant Professor at the Viroscience Department of Erasmus MC in Rotterdam.

She obtained her PhD in February 2021 in the group of Frank van Kuppeveld at the Utrecht University within the European Marie Curie Initial Training Network “Antivirals” where she has worked on the characterization of FDA-approved drugs inhibiting enterovirus replication and the development of novel broad-spectrum anti-enterovirus compounds.

In March 2020, Lisa joined the team of Debby van Riel as a post-doc at the Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam where she studies how respiratory viruses can invade extra-respiratory tissues. Her current research is focused on understanding, preventing and curing encephalopathies that are caused by different viruses, such as enteroviruses, influenza A viruses, SARS-CoV-2 and monkeypox virus.


ORCID profile  /  Scholar Google


  1. Schmitz KS, Handrejk K, Liepina L, Bauer L, et al. Functional properties of measles virus proteins derived from a subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patient who received repeated remdesivir treatments. J Virol. Published online February 8, 2024:e0187423. doi:10.1128/jvi.01874-23
  2. Bauer L, Rijsbergen LC, Leijten L, et al. The pro-inflammatory response to influenza A virus infection is fueled by endothelial cells. Life Sci Alliance. 2023;6(7):e202201837. doi:10.26508/lsa.202201837
  3. Bauer L, Giussani S, Palazzi N, et al. Dissecting the neurotropism and neurovirulence of MPXV using human stem cell-based models. Published online August 28, 2023:2023.08.25.554849. doi:10.1101/2023.08.25.554849
  4. Hurdiss DL, El Kazzi P, Bauer L, et al. Fluoxetine targets an allosteric site in the enterovirus 2C AAA+ ATPase and stabilizes a ring-shaped hexameric complex. Science Advances. 2022;8(1):eabj7615. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abj7615
  5. Bauer L, Rissmann M, Benavides FFW, et al. In vitro and in vivo differences in neurovirulence between D614G, Delta And Omicron BA.1 SARS-CoV-2 variants. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2022;10(1):124. doi:10.1186/s40478-022-01426-4
  6. Bauer L, Lendemeijer B, Leijten L, et al. Replication Kinetics, Cell Tropism, and Associated Immune Responses in SARS-CoV-2- and H5N1 Virus-Infected Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Models. mSphere. 2021;6(3):e0027021. doi:10.1128/mSphere.00270-21


  1. Bauer L, van Riel D. Do SARS-CoV-2 Variants Differ in Their Neuropathogenicity? mBio. Published online January 18, 2023:e0292022. doi:10.1128/mbio.02920-22
  2. Bauer L, Laksono BM, de Vrij FMS, Kushner SA, Harschnitz O, van Riel D. The neuroinvasiveness, neurotropism, and neurovirulence of SARS-CoV-2. Trends Neurosci. 2022;45(5):358-368. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2022.02.006


  1. Bauer L, Benavides FFW, Kroeze EJBV, Wit E de, Riel D van. The neuropathogenesis of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5Nx viruses in mammalian species including humans. Trends in Neurosciences. 2023;0(0). doi:10.1016/j.tins.2023.08.002
  2. Veldhuis Kroeze E, Bauer L, Caliendo V, van Riel D. In Vivo Models to Study the Pathogenesis of Extra-Respiratory Complications of Influenza A Virus Infection. Viruses. 2021;13(5):848. doi:10.3390/v13050848

Scholarships, grants, and awards


XS Open Science NWO

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