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Principal Investigator

Dr. M. (Miranda) de Graaf

Associate professor

Associate professor

  • Department
  • Viroscience



Miranda de Graaf (1979) is a postdoctoral researcher at Erasmus Medical Center at the Norovirus research group within the Viroscience department. She received a PhD from the Erasmus University Rotterdam in 2009 for studies on the determinants of host range and replication of human metapneumovirus. After her PhD, she received a Marie-Curie Fellowship to work on the role of glycans in the evolution of influenza viruses at Cambridge university (2009-2012). This work was partly performed at the LUMC, where she generated shotgun glycan arrays based on ferret tissue in collaboration with prof C. Hokke.

Current research
Her research is highly collaborative and interdisciplinary and combines virology, molecular biology, phylogeny and glycobiology to elucidate the evolution of noroviruses. In collaboration with the RIVM she is responsible for the coordination of global Noronet.

Field(s) of expertise


Education and career


  • 2002-2009 PhD program, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam. PhD Thesis: Metapneumoviruses; determinants of host range and replication. Supervisors: Prof. Dr. R.A.M. Fouchier and Prof. Dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus.
  • 1997-2002 Master of Science, University of Utrecht (Utrecht, The Netherlands). Study: Biology, main subject: molecular biology.


  • 2014-current Postdoc at the department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Research topic: Norovirus evolution with a focus on antigenic change and receptor binding.
  • 2012-2014 Postdoc at the department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Research topic: Development of shotgun glycan arrays to investigate influenza receptor binding.
  • 2009-2012 Postdoc/Marie Curie fellow at the department of Zoology, Cambridge University, UK. Research topic: The use of glycan cartography for the analysis of influenza receptor binding.
  • 2002-2009 PhD program, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam. PhD Thesis: Metapneumoviruses; determinants of host range and replication. Supervisors: Prof. Dr. R.A.M. Fouchier and Prof. Dr. A.D.M.E. Osterhaus.
  • 2003 Member of the student committee of the Molecular Medicine Postgraduate School molmed.
  • 2002 Kennislink, Editing and submission of scientific papers for the website kennislink. (a website that offers scientific information for a broad audience, and especially to secondary school pupils. 


Selection of publications:

Whole genome next generation sequencing to study within-host evolution of chronic norovirus infection among immunocompromised patients.
van Beek J, de Graaf M, Smits S, Schapendonk C, Verjans G, Vennema H, van der Eijk A, Phan M, Cotten M, Koopmans M. 2017 Journal of infectious diseases

Capturing norovirus transmission.
de Graaf M, Villabruna N, Koopmans M. 2017 Curr Opin Virol

Norovirus Infection in Harbor Porpoises.
de Graaf M, Bodewes R, van Elk C, van de Bildt M, Getu S, Aron G, Verjans G, Osterhaus A, van den Brand J, Kuiken T, Koopmans M 2017 Emerg Infect Dis.

Sustained fecal-oral human-to-human transmission following a zoonotic event.

de Graaf M, Beck R, Caccio S, Duim B, Fraaij P, Le Guyader F, Lecuit M, Le Pendu J, de Wit E, Schultsz C. 2016 Curr Opin Virol.

Comparison of norovirus genogroup I, II and IV seroprevalence among children in the Netherlands, 1963, 1983 and 2006.
van Beek J, de Graaf M, Xia M, Jiang X, Vinjé J, Beersma M, de Bruin E, van de Vijver D, Holwerda M, van Houten M, Buisman A, van Binnendijk R, Osterhaus A, van der Klis F, Vennema H, Koopmans M. 2016 J Gen Virol.

Human norovirus transmission and evolution in a changing world.
de Graaf M, van Beek J, Koopmans M. 2016 Nat Rev Microbiol

Human norovirus culture in B cells.
Jones M, Grau K, Costantini V, Kolawole A, de Graaf M, Freiden P, Graves C, Koopmans M, Wallet S, Tibbetts S, Schultz-Cherry S, Wobus C, Vinjé J, Karst S. 2015 Nat Protoc

Emergence of a novel GII.17 norovirus - End of the GII.4 era?

de Graaf M, van Beek J, Vennema H, Podkolzin AT, Hewitt J, Bucardo F, Templeton K, Mans J, Nordgren J, Reuter G, Lynch M, Rasmussen LD, Iritani N, Chan MC, Martella V, Ambert-Balay K, Vinjé J, White PA, Koopmans MP. 2015 Euro Surveill

Role of receptor binding specificity in influenza A virus transmission and Pathogenesis.
De Graaf M, Fouchier RA 2014 EMBO J

Genome-wide Analysis of Reassortment and Genetic Drift of Human Influenza A(H3N2) Viruses Circulating between 1968 and 2011.
Westgeest KB, Russell CA, Lin X, Spronken MI, Bestebroer TM, van Beek R, Skepner E, Halpine RA, de Jong JC, Rimmelzwaan GF, Osterhaus AD, Smith DJ, Wentworth DE, Fouchier RA, de Graaf M. 2014 J Virol

Teaching activities

  • 2015-current Lectures on foodborne infections, Research Master programme 'Infection & Immunity' Molmed, Erasmus MC.
  • 2014-current Introduction to the research topics of the Department of Viroscience, Research Master programme 'Infection & Immunity' Molmed, Erasmus MC.
  • 2013-current Lectures on phylogenetics for 'Population dynamics in infection and immunity', Research Master programme 'Infection & Immunity' Molmed, Erasmus MC.
  • 2009-current Lectures on phylogenetics for the course of molecular diagnostics, Molmed, Erasmus MC.
  • 2016 Lectures on viral gastroenteritis, Course in Virology, Erasmus MC.
  • 2015 Lectures on virus replication for the course Micro- and Immunobiology, Major life Sciences, Erasmus University College.
  • 2015 Lectures on phylogeny, WHO course, Erasmus MC.

PhD students supervised:

  • Bjorn Koel (2016): The Molecular Basis of Influenza Virus Antigenic Change
  • Kim Westgeest
  • Janko van Beek (planned defence date 2019)
  • Nele Villabruna (planned defence date 2020) co-promotor
    Supervision multiple Master and Bachelor students and technicians.

Other positions

Managing/Coordinating Programmes

  • 2014-current Manager of international collaborations within noronet, an informal network of
    scientists working in public health institutes or universities sharing virological epidemiological and molecular data on norovirus.
  • February 2017 Organizer, Horizon 2020 COMPARE, Young Compare Meeting, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
  • January 2016 Co-organizer, European FP7 ANTIGONE Dahlem inter-human barrier workshop, Bergen, The Netherlands.
  • 2014 Member of the Scientific committee for the18th Molecular Medicine Day 2014, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
  • 2011-2014 Guest researcher at the department of Parasitology, Leiden University Medical Centre, The Netherlands. Research
    topic: Development of shotgun glycan arrays to investigate influenza receptor binding.
  • 2016 The exposition Fluid Matters presented the winning project of the Bio Art and Design Award (NWO) 'Tame is to Tame' which
    was developed by Pei-Ying in collaboration with Miranda de Graaf. fluid-matter

Scholarships, grants, and awards

  • 2016 ZonMw BAD awards (€ 25.000)
  • 2016 Jacoba Breen fonds (€ 80.000) co-investigator
  • 2009-2011 Marie Curie Intra European Fellowship 
  • 2007 ESCV travel grant for the Third European Congress of Virology, Nürnberg, Germany (€ 500)
  • 2012 Travel grant for the 6th Orthomyxovirus Research Conference, Canada (£ 450)

National and international collaborations

  • Dr. M. Estes, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas
  • Dr. S.M. Karst, Department of Molecular Genetics &Microbiology, Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
  • Dr. C.H. Hokke, department of parasitology, Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands
  • Prof D.J. Smith, department of zoology, University of Cambridge, UK
  • Dr. Mikhail Matrosovich, Institut für Virologie, University of Marburg, Germany
  • MedImmune Vaccines Inc, Mountainview, USA
  • Prof. Dr. J.A. Melero, Centro Nacional de Microbiología Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Spain and Prof. A. Easton, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, UK
  • Prof. Dr. E.C. Holmes, Center for infectious disease dynamics, Pennsylvania State University, College Park, USA
  • Prof. Dr. A. Garcia-Sastre and Dr. L. Martinez, Department Microbiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA
  • Prof. Dr. T.M. Luider, Department Neurology, Erasmus MC Rotterdam
  • Prof. Dr. B. Scholte, Department of Cell Biology, Erasmus MC Rotterdam
  • Responsible scientist for GMO permits IG 14-076 (Determinants of replication, pathogenesis and host range of noroviruses) and IG 03-159 (Identification of unknown viruses)
  • Frequent reviewer for mSphere, PLOS Pathogens, Scientific Reports, Journal of Virology, Eurosurveillance, Journal of General Virology, antiviral research, PLoS One, Virus Research, Infection Genetics and Evolution, nature communication, and veterinary research
  • Participated in IP generation for HMPV (patent applications NZ527221, AU2004235347, US2005019891, US2004005544, US2003232326, WO2004010935, US2004096451

My Groups